In the geometry we have seen frequent use of the square and its diagonal. Khufu’s son, Djedefre, built his pyramid 45 degrees north west of Khufu –

Fig 6.1

– the pyramid is about the same size as Menkaure but built on a hill at Abu Roash, so that its apex is at the same level as Khafre at Giza. During the great pyramid age the centre of the cult lay at Heliopolis, 45 degrees northeast of Khufu –

Fig 6.2

– other pyramid sight lines emanate from Heliopolis, and it has been proposed that these correspond to the horizon alignments of various heavenly bodies.

Along the alignment from Heliopolis the Giza group looks like this –

Fig 6.3

– we are looking at the north east corner of Khufu, the origin of Legon’s plan. The other pyramids follow on behind, but each is visible from Heliopolis.

I found that viewing the plan along this diagonal produced some interesting results  (Butler cubits) –

Fig 6.4

– it is as if the orthogonal plan has been rotated by 45 degrees to produce similar dimensions on the diagonal to the orthogonal plan. This figure may be developed to reveal a symmetrica figure centred on Khafre –

Fig 6.4

– the cubit measures (in black) may be reduced to ratios (in red), in units of 169, or 13 X 13 cubits.

This is how the plan looks if diagonal relations are superimposed upon the orthogonal plan –

Fig 6.5

-It would seem that the 45 degree axis represented something special to builders.